As scientists study the brain and learn more about how we achieve optimal functioning, the term positivity has finally captured business leaders’ interests.
One study of CEOs showed that positivity training could boost their productivity by 15 percent, and managers improved customer satisfaction by 42 percent. Despite such training’s amazing results, many leaders remain completely unfamiliar with the concept.
In business, positive emotions yield:
Positive emotions directly correlate with:
The business benefits of positivity include:
The Broaden-and-Build Model of Positive Emotions
Psychologist Barbara Fredrickson, PhD, outlines her “broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions” in Positivity: Groundbreaking Research Reveals How to Embrace the Hidden Strength of Positive Emotions, Overcome Negativity and Thrive (Crown Archetype, 2009).
Dr. Fredrickson suggests that positive emotions (enjoyment, happiness, joy, interest and anticipation) broaden our awareness and encourage novel, varied, and exploratory thoughts and actions. Over time, this expanded behavioral repertoire helps us build skills and resources.
In contrast, negative emotions prompt narrow, immediate, survival-oriented behaviors.
Positivity and High Performance
For years, organizational psychologist Marcial Losada, PhD, studied the characteristics of high-performing business teams. As part of his work, he designed a meeting room to capture the real-time behavior of business teams in action.
The room resembled any ordinary boardroom, but it was fitted with one-way mirrors and video cameras that allowed research assistants to record every statement during company teams’ hour-long meetings.
In particular, Dr. Losada tracked whether individuals’ statements were:
By the mid-’90s, 60 different teams had been observed and coded. At the same time, each team’s performance level was identified based on independent data. Twenty-five percent met the criteria for high performance based on three distinct indicators:
About 30 percent scored low on all three factors. The rest had mixed profiles. Dr. Losada also rated team behavior on connectivity (how well tuned or responsive members were to one another).
When he later divided the teams into high, low and mixed performance levels, striking differences emerged. High-performance teams stood out by their unusually high positivity-to-negativity ratios: about 6:1. Mixed-performance teams scored ratios of 2:1, while low-performing teams scored 1:1.
High-performing teams also had higher connectivity ratings and an interesting balance on other dimensions. Members asked questions as much as they defended their own views, and they cast their attention outward as much as inward.
Low-performing teams, however, had far lower connectivity, asked almost no questions and showed almost no outward focus.
The Tipping Point: 3:1 Positivity Ratio
The positivity/negativity ratio has been found to be a critical parameter in ascertaining what kinds of dynamics are possible for business teams. It is measured by counting the instances of positive feedback (e.g., “that is a good idea”) vs. negative feedback (e.g., “this is not what I expected; I am disappointed”).
Dr. Losada’s findings can be summarized as follows: If a team is highly connected, its members will tend to maintain equilibrium between internal and external focus, as well as between inquiry and advocacy. They will also maintain a positivity/negativity ratio above 3:1.
If connectivity is low, the team will be more internally focused, it will advocate strongly, and its positivity/negativity ratio will be below 3:1.
Dr. Losada’s research correlates with Dr. Fredrickson’s, in that both independently arrived at a 3:1 positivity-to-negativity ratio for optimal functioning (whether for individuals or teams).
Improve Your Ratio
You can take a self-evaluation of your positivity/negativity ratio at Dr. Fredrickson’s site, www.positivityratio.com. To improve your ratio, you must decrease the number and intensity of negative moments; increase the positive moments, or both.
The goal is not to eliminate bad thoughts. Negative emotions are appropriate and useful. We need to become aware, however, of gratuitous negativity. Fortunately, simple awareness of negativity has a curative effect. Once you learn to spot it, you can defuse it.
To reduce negative thinking, adopt these useful techniques from the field of cognitive behavioral psychology and Dr. Fredrickson’s book:
It may take a while for positive thinking to become natural and habitual. Try these frequently cited exercises to create positive thinking habits:
As your coach I partner with you to discover new ways to boost your positivity. Because of the brain’s neuroplasticity, you can rewire it to create new thought habits and become more positive.
I have a few spots available for June coaching. Call me right now.